Sun Tracking System For Solar Panel
A photovoltaic / solar panels are devices that directly converts the sunlight ( electro-magnetic energy ) falling on them to electrical energy. Solar panels develop maximum electrical energy, when sun rays fall perpendicular on the solar panel surface. Angle between sun rays and earth surface varies continuously w.r.t. time and depend on the place latitude value & month of the year. Longitude and latitude value of any place are used to define its location on the surface of the earth. Longitude and latitude value of any city / place can be obtained with the help of any search engine i.e. Google, Bing and Yahoo etc. With the help of given software, tracking of Sun can be obtained which keep the solar panel always perpendicular to sun rays for maximum efficiency of the solar power system. Panels that track the movement of the Sun throughout the day can receive 12% (in winter) to 32% (in summer) more energy than fixed panels.
#Note: Please read 'Technical Info : Technical Terms' section of this website for more details about various terms & angles related to Sun Tracking System and used in this simulation tool.
1. Sunlight incidence angle varies throughout the year due to the rotation of the earth around its own axis and its revolution around sun in elliptical orbit. In summer, sunlight falls to the earth with steep angle, while, it falls with shallow angle in winter. To extract maximum power from PV / solar panels, sunlight should fall on solar panel with steep angle. Therefore optimum fixed tilt angles of solar panels should be adjusted monthly / seasonally. This concept applies to all type of panel that gets energy from the sun; photovoltaic, solar hot water etc.
2.Solar panels should always face true south if you are in the northern hemisphere at latitude of +23.5° / higher latitude; or true north if you are in the southern hemisphere at latitude of -23.5° / lower latitude. If your place is between latitude value of +23.45º to -23.5º, the direction of solar panel will depend on month of the year. For place located in Northern hemisphere; if the value of place latitude is higher than the declination angle in a particular month, the solar panel will be faced towards Southern hemisphere, else the solar panel will be faced toward Northern hemisphere. Similarly, for place located in Southern hemisphere; if the value of place latitude is lower than the declination angle in a particular month, the solar panel will be faced towards Northern hemisphere, else the solar panel will be faced toward Southern hemisphere. Please note that geographic (True) north pole is not the same as magnetic north pole.
3. Solar panel tilt angle, Sunrise and Sunset timing mainly depends on the latitude value of the place and month of the year. Longitude value of the place is useful to calculate the difference between local location time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).
4. The total insolation on the solar panel is the summation of the direct and diffuse component of sun radiation. The reflected component of the radiation is ignored in this calculation as it constitutes a minor fraction of the total insolation received by the solar panels.
5. Generally, sun panel with sun tracking system are used for research and development purpose because the cost of automatic sun tracker is too high as compared to its advantages.
6. When cursor is placed on the solar tracking angles graph, respective values of x-axis and y-axis display on the graph. Please ignore the peaks of the graph, where cursor is not displaying the respective value of x-axis and y-axis.